If you had a dollar for all the grammar mistakes you’ve made (or have yet to make) in your life, you’d be rich by now. Unfortunately, you don’t get paid for making grammar mistakes, and making too many errors could cost you time and money at work or in school.
To save you time and money, as well as embarrassment, Bloggr collaborated with and to compile a list of 30 grammar tips for writers. Use these handy tips to improve your writing so your work will be clearer, accurate, and more professional.
1 Overuse of adverbs
Adverbs—those words that often end in -ly—modify verbs. They’re okay once in a while, but in excess they’re an indicator of weak verb choices. In our example, the adverb “really fast” modifies the verb “ran.” But does “really fast” paint a more vivid word-picture for the reader? Use a juicier verb like “sprinted” instead.
2 Too many prepositional phrases
Prepositions are those words that often come before nouns and pronouns to show direction, location, or time. In the first sentence we have two prepositional phrases—“over the top” and “of the hill.” Excessive prepositional phrases render your writing wordy. Whenever possible, simplify.
3 Ambiguous (“Squinting”) modifiers
A squinting modifier is a misplaced modifier that, because of its location in a sentence, could modify either the phrase that precedes it or the one that follows it. (In the example sentence, is the subject listening to music slowly or slowly getting a headache?) To correct a squinting modifier, move its position in the sentence to make it clear to the reader which word you intend to modify.
4 Misuse of lie/lay
If you plan to place or put an object somewhere, such as a plate on a table, you should use “lay.” If you intend to stretch out on a bed for a nap, you should use “lie.” The verb “lie” is an intransitive verb, which means it does not need an object. The transitive verb “lay” requires an object.
It may take some getting used to this “lay” or “lie” business; after all, misuse of these verbs is common. But if you remember to lay down your fork before you’re full, then you won’t have to lie down later from overeating.
5 Ambiguous pronoun references
When you use the pronouns “her” or “him,” readers need to know to whom those pronouns refer. A pronoun without a clear antecedent is ambiguous.
In our example sentence demonstrating an ambiguous pronoun, the reader is unsure who the second “he” is. Was John in the way, or was there another “he” involved? As noted in the corrected example, the pronoun “he” refers to Tim, who is card-blocking Helga. Always be sure your pronouns refer to a specific antecedent.
6 Comma splices
To splice means to connect or join. When a writer joins two independent sentences with a comma instead of separating them with a period or a coordinating conjunction, that’s a comma splice.
The comma has its own jobs to do, but connecting two independent sentences isn’t one of those jobs. Besides, the period gets testy when his sister, the comma, steals his thunder. Periods have their jobs, and so do commas, but never the twain shall meet—unless it’s in the form of a semicolon. Semicolons can also take the place of a coordinating conjunction, such as “and,” “but,” or “so,” among others.
7 Run-on sentences
Run-on sentences, also known as fused sentences, occur when two complete sentences are squashed together without using a coordinating conjunction or proper punctuation, such as a period or a semicolon. Run-on sentences can be short or long. A long sentence isn’t necessarily a run-on sentence.
To avoid run-on sentences, see if there is more than one idea communicated by two or more independent clauses. In our examples, there are two complete sentences:
Both sentences are complete ideas by themselves; therefore, use a semicolon or a period to indicate that they are separate independent clauses.
8 Wordiness (inflated sentences)
If you have something to say to readers, spit it out (figuratively, not literally). Inflating sentences with unnecessary words or pointless filler only muddles what you mean to say. Wordy sentences also frustrate readers, so get to the point. Streamline your sentences by using strong verbs and nouns instead of trite adjectives and adverbs.
William Shakespeare once wrote that brevity is the soul of wit. Follow the Bard’s lead by never using ten sentences when two will suffice. Don’t overuse words such as “that,” “just,” and “very.” Proofread your work to keep your prose tightened and toned!
9 Using “could of” instead of “could have”
“Could have” is always correct; “could of” never is. Writers probably make this grammar gaffe because, when we speak, the contraction “could’ve” sounds an awful lot like “could of.”
Tautologies express the same thing twice with different words. In our example, the word “made” implies that Jack used his own two hands to create the pail. The prepositional phrase “with his own hands” creates a redundancy. Once you know what they are, it’s fun to discover tautologies: dilapidated ruins, close proximity, added bonus, large crowd . . . The list goes on and on!
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